레이먼드 창의 일반화학 8th edition solution 입니다. 알집 파일 이여서 보여드릴 방법은 없지만 믿고 받아가셔도 됩니다.
INTERMOLECULAR FORCES AND LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS
11.7 ICl has a dipole moment and Br2 does not. The dipole moment increases the intermolecular attractions between ICl molecules and causes that substance to have a higher melting point than bromine.
11.8 Strategy: Classify the species into three categories: ionic, polar (possessing a dipole moment), and nonpolar. Keep in mind that dispersion forces exist between all species.
Solution: The three molecules are essentially nonpolar. There is little difference in electronegativity between carbon and hydrogen. Thus, the only type of intermolecular attraction in these molecules is dispersion forces. Other factors being equal, the molecule with the greater number of electrons will exert greater intermolecular attractions. By looking at the molecular formulas you can predict that the order of increasing boiling points will be CH4 < C3H8 < C4H10.
On a very cold day, propane and butane would be liquids (boiling points −44.5°C and −0.5°C, respectively); only methane would still be a gas (boiling point −161.6°C).
11.9 All are tetrahedral (AB4 type) and are nonpolar. Therefore, the only intermolecular forces possible are